An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer complained about.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever manner it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only take place in certain limited circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IPCC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter; and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into a complaint and produces a report that details the outcome of each allegation. There are four types of investigation: local investigation, supervised investigation, managed investigation and independent investigation.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
The IPCC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.

IPCC publishes annual deaths during or following police contact for 2012/13 – mental health a key factor

Jul 22, 2013

Mental health continued to be a key factor in deaths in or after police custody in 2012-13, according to statistics published today by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC)

The report Deaths during or following police contact: Statistics for England and Wales 2012/13 shows that:

  • Deaths in police custody remained at 15, the same as last year, and many fewer than in earlier years.  But almost half (7 out of 15) of those who died were known to have mental health concerns, the same proportion as in 2011-12.  Four of those who died were known to have been restrained by police officers.

  • There was a considerable rise in the number of apparent suicides within two days of release from police custody, with 64 such deaths, the highest number recorded over the last nine years.  A number had been arrested in connection with alleged sexual offences.  Almost two-thirds were known to have mental health concerns, an even higher proportion than in 2011-12, and seven had previously been detained under the Mental Health Act. 

  • For the first time in the IPCC’s history, there were no fatal police shootings in 2012-13. 

  • The number of road traffic fatalities, which had been steadily decreasing over the previous three years, rose again, partly due to a number of incidents resulting in multiple fatalities.  However, the proportion of those deaths that resulted from police pursuits increased, accounting for 26 of the 30 deaths.

  • The IPCC independently investigated nine deaths in or following police custody, ten road traffic incidents and four apparent suicides.

  • Outside these categories, the IPCC independently investigated 21 other deaths following police contact, of which nine followed a history of domestic violence or threats, fewer than the 18 in 2011-12. 

Dame Anne Owers, Chair of the IPCC, said:

“Each of these deaths is an individual tragedy, and it is crucial that we make sure that any possible lessons are learned.

"It is welcome that the number of those dying in police custody has significantly reduced – less than half the number before the IPCC was set up.  However, it is of continuing concern that a high proportion – almost half – were known to have mental health issues, as were nearly two-thirds of those who apparently committed suicide within two days of release from custody. 

“The police are often called in to deal with acutely mentally ill people, who may be a danger to themselves or others or who may be behaving in a disturbing or strange way.   It is clearly important that they are better trained in mental health awareness.   But these figures also point to gaps and failings in the services that ought to support those with mental illness - before, instead of and after contact with the criminal justice system.

"For the first time since the IPCC came into being nearly a decade ago, there were no fatal shootings in 2012-13, and this is welcome, especially given the number of occasions on which armed police are deployed. 

“The increase in the number and proportion of police pursuit related deaths is disappointing.  Forces need to be mindful of the ACPO guidelines on the management of pursuits which IPCC investigations have helped to strengthen.”

 

The report shows that there were:

  • 15 deaths in or following police custody, the same figure as the previous year

  • no fatal police shootings, for the first time since the IPCC started work in 2004

  • 30 road traffic fatalities, up from 19 the previous year

  • 64 apparent suicides following police custody, up from 39 the previous year

  • 21 other deaths following police contact that were subject to an IPCC independent investigation, down from 47 the previous year

Road traffic fatalities:

  • 30 people, 24 men and six women, died in 23 police-related road traffic incidents

  • there were 19 fatal police pursuit incidents accounting for 26 of the deaths – 13 of the deaths were from six such incidents

  • 18 of the deceased were the driver/passenger in a pursued vehicle and died when their vehicle crashed

  • eight people died as a pedestrian/cyclist or after their vehicle was hit by a car being pursued by police

Deaths in or during custody:

  • 14 men and one woman died in police custody

  • Four were known to have been restrained by police officers at some point prior to their death

  • Nine people had a link to alcohol and drugs

Other deaths following police contact (this category includes only deaths following police contact that are subject to an IPCC independent investigation):

  • in 17 of the 21 deaths police were contacted as a result of concerns being raised over an individual’s safety or well-being

- ENDS -

Notes to Editors

The report Deaths during or following police contact: Statistics for England and Wales 2012/13 is available here.

For the first time since the IPCC has had responsibility for reporting on deaths we are also publishing tables showing data for each police force over a nine-year period.

Data tables

Definitions

  • Road traffic fatalities include deaths of motorists, cyclists or pedestrians arising from police pursuits, police vehicles responding to emergency calls and other police traffic-related activity.

This does not include:

  • Deaths following a road traffic incident (RTI) where the police have attended immediately after the event as an emergency service.

  • Fatal shootings include fatalities where police officers fired the fatal shot using a conventional firearm.

  • Deaths in or following police custody includes deaths that occur while a person is being arrested or taken into detention. It includes deaths of persons who have been arrested or have been detained by police under the Mental Health Act 1983. The death may have taken place on police, private or medical premises, in a public place or in a police or other vehicle. 

This includes:

  • Deaths that occur during or following police custody where injuries that contributed to the death were sustained during the period of detention.

  • Deaths that occur in or on the way to hospital (or other medical premises) following or during transfer from scene of arrest or police custody.

  • Deaths that occur as a result of injuries or other medical problems that are identified or that develop while a person is in custody.

  • Deaths that occur while a person is in police custody having been detained under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983 or other related legislation.

This does not include:

  • Suicides that occur after a person has been released from police custody.

  • Deaths of individuals who have been transferred to the care of another agency and subsequently die while in their care, of injuries or illness not identified or sustained while in police custody.

  • Deaths that occur where the police are called to assist medical staff to restrain individuals who are not under arrest.

  • Apparent suicides following police custody includes apparent suicides that occur within two days of release from police custody. It also includes apparent suicides that occur beyond two days of release from custody, where the period spent in custody may be relevant to the subsequent death.

  • Other deaths following police contact includes deaths that follow contact with the police, either directly or indirectly, that did not involve arrest or detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 and were subject to an IPCC independent investigation. An independent investigation is determined by the IPCC for the most serious incidents that cause the greatest level of public concern, have the greatest potential to impact on communities or have serious implications for the reputation of the police service. The criteria to include only deaths subject to an IPCC independent investigation have been applied since 2010/11 to improve consistency in the reporting of these deaths.

This may include:

  • Deaths that occur after the police are called to attend a domestic incident that results in a fatality.

  • Deaths that occur while a person is actively attempting to evade arrest; this includes instances where the death is self-inflicted.

  • Deaths that occur when the police are in attendance at a siege situation, including where a person kills themselves or someone else.

  • Deaths that occur after the police have been contacted following concerns about a person's welfare and there is concern about the nature of the police response.

  • Deaths that occur where the police are called to assist medical staff to restrain individuals who are not under arrest.

 

For media enquiries please contact the IPCC press office on 0207-166-3239

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer complained about.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever manner it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only take place in certain limited circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IPCC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter; and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into a complaint and produces a report that details the outcome of each allegation. There are four types of investigation: local investigation, supervised investigation, managed investigation and independent investigation.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
The IPCC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.