An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.

A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IPCC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.

A matter where no complaint has been received, but where there is an indication that a person serving with the police may have committed a criminal offence or behaved in a manner that would justify disciplinary proceedings.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.

A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IPCC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IPCC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter; and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into a complaint and produces a report that details the outcome of each allegation. There are four types of investigation: local investigation, supervised investigation, managed investigation and independent investigation.

Quarter 1 covers 1 April - 30 June

Quarter 2 covers 1 April - 30 September

Quarter 3 covers 1 April - 31 December

Quarter 4 covers the full financial year (1 April - 31 March).

The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
The IPCC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.

Detailed overview of the IPCC independent investigation into circumstances surrounding the Hillsborough disaster

Jan 12, 2017

Following the publication of the Hillsborough Independent Panel (HIP) report in September 2012, the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) announced it would conduct an independent investigation into cover-up allegations in the aftermath of the Hillsborough disaster.

The HIP report identified two broad themes for investigation:

  1. Allegations that went to the heart of what happened at Hillsborough Stadium on 15 April 1989.
  2. Allegations about what happened after the disaster, including that evidence was fabricated and misinformation was circulated in an attempt to avoid blame.

Both investigations work from a joint base in Renaissance House in Warrington.

The IPCC has a remit to investigate the police under the Police Reform Act 2002.

A comprehensive investigation into what happened on the day of the tragedy would entail investigating non-police individuals and organisations over whom the IPCC has no remit. Therefore, the Home Secretary appointed former Chief Constable of Durham Jon Stoddart to set up Operation Resolve to examine events leading up to, and on the day of the disaster. The IPCC has maintained direction and control (managed) the area of Operation Resolve that examined the actions of police officers.

The IPCC investigation

The IPCC independent investigation examined police actions in the aftermath of the disaster. It examined alleged criminality and is continuing to examine alleged misconduct. The areas investigated include:

  • Amendments to South Yorkshire Police (SYP) officers’ accounts
  • Allegations that misleading information was passed to the media, MPs, Parliament and subsequent investigations and inquiries.
  • Blood alcohol and Police National Computer (PNC) checks.
  • The role of West Midlands Police (WMP) after the disaster.
  • Allegations that families and campaigners were subject to surveillance after the disaster.
  • Allegations about Sir Norman Bettison’s appointment to Merseyside Police as Chief Constable.

The IPCC investigation team is overseen by Deputy Chair Rachel Cerfontyne.

Key facts:

  • 205 IPCC staff are working on the investigation
  • more than 11,000 lines of enquiry have been pursued
  • more than 4,500 witness statements have been recorded
  • over 1,200 witness interviews have been conducted
  • over 105,000 documents have been reviewed. These include 26,000 documents provided from the Hillsborough Independent Panel
  • 34,000 evidential items were made available to Coroner Sir John Goldring’s team to support the Hillsborough inquests
  • approximately 8,000 exhibits were seized – one exhibit alone comprised 85 boxes of material from a single organisation
  • exhibits include:
    •  a 1980s computer and 167 floppy discs that were seized
    • a leather-bound book of SYP policies and procedures from the 1980s
    • 5,500 SYP pocket notebooks
  • nine terrabytes of digital media have been obtained, including 2,700 individual pieces of audiovisual footage and approximately 19,000 still images
  • independent experts in equine veterinary science, handwriting, coronial matters and criminal investigations have assisted our enquiries
  • £45m is the cost to date

Amendments to officers’ accounts

The IPCC’s independent investigation examined amendments to statements, aiming to establish:

  • who ordered them
  • who knew about them
  • who was involved
  • if pressure was put on individual officers to amend accounts

The amendment process has formed a central part of the investigation.

The HIP identified 194 amended statements. Thirty of those amendments were typographical errors and did not include material alterations.

The IPCC identified additional amended accounts, taking the total number to 289.

We interviewed the majority of these officers to understand their experiences of the amendment process.

Extensive analytical work on these accounts has also helped to develop an understanding of the types of amendments that were made and the impact these had on overall evidence. The point at which amended accounts may have entered the various Hillsborough judicial processes has also been assessed.

The ‘handover’ of officers’ accounts to the West Midlands Police (WMP) criminal investigation,  and what the force was told by SYP about the amendment process, has also formed part of this work.

Allegations that misleading information was passed to the media, MPs, Parliament and subsequent investigations and inquiries

The IPCC identified and contacted approximately 200 journalists and 20 politicians and civil servants to establish what information was shared with them by SYP officers following the disaster. This was to investigate the allegation that police officers deliberately misled the media and Parliament about what happened at Hillsborough to deflect blame from the force. Included within this strand was an examination of the origin of the article published by The Sun newspaper under the headline ‘The Truth’.

More than 40 formal statements were taken from regional and national journalists who reported on Hillsborough, including those who were in the press box at the stadium during the match. Police officers and civilian staff who worked in the force press office were also interviewed.

MPs who attended meetings and briefings about the disaster were contacted to assess whether they could provide any relevant information.

Blood alcohol and Police National Computer (PNC) checks

The IPCC examined whether there was any police influence on the decision to test the blood alcohol levels from those who died, and some who were injured at the disaster. This line of enquiry aimed to establish if the testing was part of a standard process or whether, as alleged, it was the result of an attempt by SYP to create a narrative around drunken supporters.

The coroner to the original inquests, Dr Stefan Popper, was interviewed about this process before he died. We also spoke to members of his coronial team and SYP officers involved with those inquests. Some of the medical staff involved in the testing were also interviewed.

The IPCC also examined why there were checks made on the Police National Computer (PNC) about some of those who died and some survivors. We aimed to look at the reason for conducting these checks and if they were justified. Investigators reviewed accepted policies and processes related to making PNC checks at the time and contacted a number of witnesses to assist with understanding these processes.

The role of West Midlands Police (WMP) after the disaster

The role of WMP and those who led its criminal investigation after the disaster, has been thoroughly examined. Work has included:

  • A witness appeal undertaken in September 2013 to hear the experiences of those who spoke to WMP officers after the disaster. This followed allegations about persistent questioning of Liverpool fans about alcohol consumption and indications that witness accounts were not recorded or handled correctly.  The appeal received over 1,700 responses.
  • Review and analysis of 5,000 statements, over 8,000 actions (instructions distributed to officers to complete an investigative task) and 9,000 completed witness questionnaires amassed by the WMP investigation.
  • Instruction of an independent expert in criminal investigations to help review if the force pursued all obvious lines of enquiry and if their work met the accepted police standards of the time.
  • A content analysis of the 7,000-page file of evidence that was provided to the Director of Public Prosecutions (in March 1990) to inform decisions on criminal charges.
  • An examination of the relationship between SYP and WMP including what information was shared about the amendment process. We have established that WMP received around 1,100 accounts from SYP to assist with their enquiries and some of these contained amendments.

Allegations that families and campaigners were subject to surveillance after the disaster

The original terms of reference were expanded to investigate allegations that Hillsborough families and campaigners were put under police surveillance in the years following the disaster. Some of these complaints, particularly those alleging the tapping of phones, were examined but could not be fully investigated due to the law preventing information about the existence of any authorisation for telephone intercepts being made available to the IPCC. Complainants who fell into this category were advised to contact the Investigatory Powers Tribunal.

Allegations about Sir Norman Bettison’s appointment to Merseyside Police Chief Constable

The terms of reference of the independent investigation were again expanded following an allegation that Sir Norman Bettison was dishonest about his involvement in Hillsborough during the recruitment process for the post of Chief Constable of Merseyside Police in 1998.

The IPCC conducted a number of witness interviews with those involved in this process, including those from the Merseyside Police Authority.

Misconduct

Approximately 170 allegations of misconduct, including those contained in complaints have been received from fans who attended the match and family members of those who died. Some of these are being investigated by the IPCC, such as those that which relate to SYP and WMP officers’ actions after the tragedy. Allegations about police on the day of the disaster are being examined by Operation Resolve as part of its inquiry managed by the IPCC.

Allegations in the IPCC complaints cover a variety of themes. These include:

  • excessive questioning by WMP officers about alcohol consumption and Liverpool fan behaviour
  • accounts which do not fully reflect what WMP officers were told by witnesses
  • lost witness accounts
  • poor administration and handling of witness accounts by WMP
  • young people interviewed without an appropriate adult

We have also received complaints from a group of Liverpool fans, which contain several allegations that SYP officers falsified witness evidence in the aftermath of the disaster. We have pursued several lines of enquiry related to this complaint, including alleged falsified reports of injuries sustained to a police horse near the Leppings Lane turnstiles. This remains ongoing.

Freemasons

The IPCC examined if there was any form of influence on the decision-making of police involved in the disaster, arising from the membership of any organisations or groups. This included examining concerns from the Hillsborough families about the potential impact of freemason membership on the actions of police.

The United Grand Lodge of England has assisted our work by providing historical attendance records of lodge meetings. This has helped establish what lodge meetings took place after Hillsborough and if officers involved in the disaster attended them.

Document recovery

We have obtained materials from a number of external organisations including government departments including the Home Office and Treasury solicitors. We also have materials from organisations such as The Football Association, The Crown Prosecution Service, Liverpool City Council, SYP, WMP, the BBC, ITV Granada and various radio stations and newspapers. These have all been assessed for investigative and disclosure purposes.

In 2014, the Home Secretary wrote to all police forces in England and Wales to ask them to search for materials related to Hillsborough. This produced a small number of documents that were provided to the investigation and assessed for relevancy.

A number of SYP and WMP buildings have been searched several times during the course of the investigation. A search was also conducted at the home address of a suspect for documentation relating to a specific line of enquiry.

More recently we have reviewed 87,000 documents from the recent Hillsborough inquests. We have also assessed materials related to the miners’ strike at Orgreave for any relevancy to Hillsborough.

Disclosure

All materials held by the investigations continue to be assessed in preparation for any potential criminal prosecutions.

This disclosure process is designed to ensure that the prosecution can meet its legal obligations to material which is not used as evidence. This material is known as unused material. If there are criminal proceedings some of this material may have to be disclosed to the legal teams representing those charged.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.

A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IPCC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.

A matter where no complaint has been received, but where there is an indication that a person serving with the police may have committed a criminal offence or behaved in a manner that would justify disciplinary proceedings.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.

A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IPCC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IPCC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IPCC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IPCC.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.

The appropriate authority can be:

  • the chief officer of the police force
  • the Police and Crime Commissioner responsible for the police force you complained about
  • the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service)
  • the Common Council for the City of London (if your complaint is about the Commissioner of the City of London police).
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
A person is adversely affected is he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
IPCC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
Consists of a chair, two deputy chairs, and commissioners – each responsible for specific police forces, guardianship work and individual cases.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IPCC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter; and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into a complaint and produces a report that details the outcome of each allegation. There are four types of investigation: local investigation, supervised investigation, managed investigation and independent investigation.

Quarter 1 covers 1 April - 30 June

Quarter 2 covers 1 April - 30 September

Quarter 3 covers 1 April - 31 December

Quarter 4 covers the full financial year (1 April - 31 March).

The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
The IPCC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.
An application by a complainant for a police decision to be reviewed.

Investigations:

Police force:

Location: